Most of our visa refusal cases which are taken to the Federal Court for judicial review deal with whether or not the visa officer’s decision was reasonable. However, there may be times where a visa officer has breached procedural fairness by treating the applicant unfairly. We will explore our firms case, Taeb v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2023 FC 576, and how Justice O’Reilly determined that the visa officer breached procedural fairness.

Issue and Summary of the case

In Mr. Taeb’s case, his study permit application was denied by a visa officer due to concerns regarding his intention to return to Iran after completing his program. The officer specifically highlighted the lack of detailed banking transactions in Mr. Taeb’s financial records, which led to doubts about the availability of assets and funds in his account to cover his education and living expenses. Furthermore, the officer questioned the necessity of additional education for Mr. Taeb’s career goals in Iran, considering he already held a Bachelor’s degree in Accounting.

Mr. Taeb strongly contends that he was treated unfairly by the officer, primarily because he was not given the opportunity to respond to the concerns raised. He argues that this lack of opportunity to address the officer’s doubts deprived him of a fair chance to clarify any misunderstandings and present his case adequately. Additionally, Mr. Taeb asserts that the officer’s decision was unreasonable, likely referring to the officer’s doubts about his need for further education and the overall assessment of his application.

In his request for judicial review, Mr. Taeb seeks the quashing of the officer’s decision and a reconsideration of his application by another officer. Justice O’Reilly, in this case, agrees with Mr. Taeb’s claim of unfair treatment. It acknowledges that the officer’s failure to provide Mr. Taeb with an opportunity to respond to the concerns raised constitutes a violation of procedural fairness. As a result, the Justice O’Reilly grants Mr. Taeb’s application for judicial review based on the issue of unfair treatment, making it unnecessary to delve into the question of unreasonableness in the officer’s decision-making process.

This decision highlights the significance of providing individuals with a fair chance to address concerns and present their case, ensuring procedural fairness in the application process. Justice O’Reilly’s agreement with Mr. Taeb’s claim underscores the importance of treating applicants fairly and allowing them to have their voice heard in immigration matters.

Rule for Procedural Fairness

In the context of a study permit application, the burden of proof rests with the applicants to demonstrate that they fulfill the necessary requirements, which includes providing evidence that they have the intention to depart from the country upon completion of their studies. This requirement is specified in the Immigration and Refugee Protection Regulations (IRPR) under section 216(1)(b).

While the burden lies on the applicants, it is essential for the visa officers to provide a fair opportunity for them to respond to any concerns regarding the credibility or accuracy of their submitted evidence. This means that the officers must give the applicants a chance to address any doubts or issues raised by the officer during the assessment of the application. This principle of fairness was established in the case of Ibekwe v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) in 2022, specifically referenced in the judgment as 2022 FC 728 at paragraph 17.

Therefore, although the applicants have the responsibility to meet the requirements and provide supporting evidence, it is equally important for the officers to afford them a fair opportunity to clarify any concerns or inconsistencies that may arise during the assessment process. This ensures a balanced and just evaluation of the study permit application.

Application of the Rule for Procedural Fairness

In the case at hand, the applicant, Mr. Taeb, submitted information regarding his financial resources, which included details about his available cash, real estate holdings, and a tuition deposit. Despite this information, the visa officer held the belief that the documentary evidence provided by Mr. Taeb was only intended for demonstrative purposes. In other words, the officer implied that the evidence did not accurately reflect Mr. Taeb’s true financial position but instead served as a misleading front. However, the specific grounds for the officer’s concern regarding the authenticity of Mr. Taeb’s financial evidence are not explicitly mentioned in the provided reasons. The officer’s reasoning behind considering the evidence as potentially deceptive or unreliable is not apparent.

Given that the officer cast doubt on the genuineness of Mr. Taeb’s financial documentation, it was the officer’s responsibility to offer Mr. Taeb an opportunity to address these concerns. By not providing Mr. Taeb with a chance to respond or clarify the authenticity of his financial evidence, the handling of his application can be considered unfair.


In light of the Officer’s unfair treatment, Justice O’Reilly has determined that it is appropriate to grant Mr. Taeb’s application for judicial review. This decision reflects the recognition that Mr. Taeb’s rights to procedural fairness were violated by the failure to afford him the opportunity to respond to the concerns regarding his documentary evidence.

Please note: This blog is not meant to be shared as legal advice. If you wish to speak to or meet with one of our legal professionals, please book a consultation here!

To read more Pax Law court decisions in the Federal court, you can do so with Canadian Legal Information Institute by clicking here.


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