Making decisions in immigration and citizenship applications is a complex process that involves adhering to the principles of procedural fairness. At Pax Law Corporation, we understand the vital importance of procedural fairness in maintaining a just and equitable immigration system. In this blog post, we will delve into the key aspects of procedural fairness, its implications for decision-makers, and the rights of applicants throughout the decision-making process.

Procedural Fairness: A Foundation of Equitable Decision-Making:

Procedural fairness is a fundamental principle that decision-makers must follow while evaluating immigration and citizenship applications. Its core tenets ensure that applicants are treated fairly and justly, allowing them to participate actively in the process.

The Elements of Procedural Fairness:

Decision-makers must adhere to several essential elements to uphold procedural fairness,  including:

1. Fair and Unbiased Assessment:

Applicants have the right to an impartial evaluation of their application, free from bias or prejudice. Decision-makers must conduct an unbiased assessment of each application, considering all relevant factors.

2. Informed Decision-Maker’s Concerns:

Applicants should be informed of the concerns the decision-maker raises regarding their application. This transparency allows applicants to address these concerns effectively.

3. Meaningful Opportunity to Respond:

Procedural fairness necessitates that applicants have a genuine chance to respond to the concerns raised about their application. This ensures that their perspective is taken into account before a decision is made.

Processing without undue delay

Undue delays in processing applications can be seen as a denial of procedural fairness. Decision-makers must process applications promptly and avoid unjustifiable delays hindering applicants’ rights. If you are experiencing a delay in processing your application, you may want to consider a writ of mandamus. You can find more information on mandamus applications on our blog here!

The right to fair and impartial decision-making

Applicants are entitled to an unbiased decision-maker free from any possible perception of bias. Decision-makers must avoid situations that could lead to biased judgments, including preconceived notions or previous involvement in a case.

The applicant’s right to be heard

Applicants must be allowed to participate actively in the decision-making process. This right includes being informed of significant facts that could influence the outcome and providing a platform for applicants to respond to evidence or concerns.

Whoever hears must decide

The decision-maker must have the legal authority to assess the information provided and make a determination. The decision should be based on a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant factors, avoiding reliance on subjective assessments.

While decision-making authority can be delegated, the ultimate responsibility for making a decision rests with the authorized decision-maker. Any transfer of responsibility should ensure a thorough assessment of the case and clear communication with the applicant.

Legitimate expectation

Applicants have the right to expect that promised procedures will be followed. For instance, decisions should not be made prematurely if a specific timeframe is given for document submission.

The right to reasons

The right to reasons ensures transparency and accountability. Applicants have a right to know the basis of a decision. The reasons must be clear, precise, and understandable, enabling applicants to prepare appeals or seek judicial review if necessary.


Procedural fairness is a cornerstone of Canadian law and an important part of the immigration and citizenship application process, as it ensures that applicants receive fair and just treatment throughout. At Pax Law Corporation, we are dedicated to ensuring immigration officers uphold these principles through our diligent work in Judicial Review. We also work to ensure that applicants understand their procedural fairness rights. If you have any questions, need assistance with your immigration or citizenship application, or feel your application has been refused and you are seeking judicial review, feel free to reach out to us at Pax Law Corporation. Your journey to a just and equitable decision starts with us.

(Note: This blog post is a summary of the provided information and is not legal advice. For specific legal guidance, please consult with a qualified immigration attorney or professional.)


Leave a Reply

Avatar placeholder

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

Call Us Now